The micro and nanofabrication capability at Glasgow has been developing and delivering a wide range of technologies for quantum technologies which includes microtraps and integrated DFB lasers for atomic clocks, Si photonic circuits for quantum communication and quantum computing and a range of quantum sensors.
Glasgow has 30 years experience of electron beam lithography and nanofabrication as undertaken by the Micro- & Nano-Technology Group. Our capability allows single line lithography with sub-10 nm resolution and layer-to-layer alignment of 0.46 nm rms. Our detailed experience of dry etch and metallisation has allowed us to deliver and demonstrate integrated device structures using developed low damage process modules as required by sub-100 nm devices.
Glasgow has used the 30 years experience in nanofabrication to deliver many nanotechnology solutions. The majority of the research is undertaken in the Micro- & Nano-Technology Group. Examples of the work include super hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces which were originally designed for healthcare applications but have since been investigated for anti-icing surfaces and glass which does not require cleaning. Technology has also been developed for manufacturing thermocouples on AFM tips for thermal AFM and sub-wavelength "holy" surfaces for coloured plasmon screens.
Glasgow has been heavily involved in the development of deep sub-micron III-V transistors including T-gate HEMTs and more recently III-V CMOS. Our unique capabilities with low interface state density insulators such as GaGdO on GaAs have allowed us to produce some of the highest performance III-V transistors produced anywhere in the world. We also have a number of programmes investigating silicon based nanoelectronics including nanowires and single electron transistors for high sentivity sensing applications.
We have a wide range of healthcare research being undertaken which includes using nanopatterned surfaces to direct STEM cell growth, scaffolds to aid tissue and muscle repair, cell measurement and sensing and lab-on-a-chip applications. We also have a range of medical imaging technologies being developed including Compton cameras, X-ray detectors and THz imaging systems.
Glasgow has been working on III-V intermediate bandgap solar cells since its inception and has the capability to process III-V photovoltaic concentrator diodes. We also have work on thermoelectrics and using photonic bandgap patterned surfaces on GaN white LEDs to improve the emission luminescence and therefore efficiency.
We have been working on a range of security technologies including Compton cameras, Wakefield accelerators, THz & mm-wave imaging and CBRNE detection. Our expertise includes security cleared people to undertake research and we have worked with the Home Office, MOD and a number of other organisations.
We also have a large number of programmes investigating different aspects of sensing and building sensors. These include silicon-based nanowires for bio and chemical sensing, single electron transistors for high sensitivity electrometry, optoelectronic sensors, lab-on-a-chip based sensors, cell sensors, pH sensors, etc......
Glasgow has pioneered electromagnetic bandgap or metamaterial optics for THz and mm-wave applications. Fresnel lenses, tunable filters, beam steerers and many other components have been designed and demonstrated. Imprint techniques have been used to transfer the components from silicon stamps into cheap and highly transparent polymers potentially allowing cheap manufactured produces. We also have significant experience with THz sources including Gunn diodes and quantum cascade lasers.
Optoelectronics covers several rapidly growing areas of research including ultrafast tunable lasers, integrated optics, photonic integrated circuits, all-optical computing and optical sensing applications. The Optoelectronics Research Group has been conducting internationally recognised research for over 25 years, providing world class expertise in the design, fabrication and characterisation of optoelectronic devices.
Many of the optoelectronic technologies developed at Glasgow are aimed at photonic applications at 1.3 and 1.55 µm wavelengths. We have developed many types of lasers in AlGaInAs, AlGaASP, InGaAs and InP materials including DFBs, microrings and microdiscs. We produced the smallest InP microring laser and have significant work on fast modulators, ring drop filters and switches.
We have been working on Si photonics for over 5 years and we presently hold or have held the world records for the losses losses from a Si waveguide (SOI) and the highest Q Si cavity. We also have signficant work on fast modulators including ion implanted and Ge quantum well quantum confined Stark effect. We are presently working on integrating Ge and SiGe technologies to allow complete single chip silicon optoelectronic solutions for photonic and healthcare applications.
Our biotechnology research is carrier out by the Bioelectronics Research Centre which was established 20 years ago and the Centre for Cell Engineering. The groups have strong track records in many aspects of bioengineering, especially those associated with advanced biomedical diagnostics, biosensors, cell engineering, Lab-on-a-Chip, Bionanotechnology, direct STEM cell growth and medical scaffolds. Our work is supported through strong national and international collaborations with academia and industry, particularly in the development of microfluidic devices for proteomics, the development of cell based technologies for the pharmaceutical industry, Lab-in-a-Pill, biophotonics as well as high resolution spectroscopy for biomaterial characterisation.
Glasgow has enormous experience with lab-on-a-chip technologies including microfluidics, optical tweezers and molecular sensing. The lab-on-a-pill technology was spun out into the company Mode Diagnostics using sensing technology coupled to wireless communications to send data outside of the body.
Glasgow has a range of novel technologies developed for producing AFM tips. These include thermocouples on the AFM tips for thermal AFM with Johnson noise used to produce an absolute temperature calibration and single carbon nanotube tips for high resolution AFM.
The magnetics work at Glasgow involved both the nanofabrication of spintronic devices as well as their characterisation especially using TEM techniques in the School of Physics.